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The Color of Art: Pigment Violet, PV
Artist's Paint and Pigments Reference, Color Index Names: Color index Number and Pigment Chemical Composition

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Where applicable, clicking on the artist paint or pigment company code next to the pigments name will take you off site where more information can be found on the artist color. See the Key at the bottom of this page for all the art supply or pigment company codes. The links lead to an art materials supplier, In most cases more specific art medium or paint binder info, pigment properties, pigment history and MSDS sheets. Along with more info, special discounts or sales are often available.
Medium/binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the economy grade, not the "artist's" premium paint. see the Key for art material code.

Jump to CI Pigment Violet Number:
NV 1;
PV 1, PV 1:1,PV 1:2, PV 2, PV 2:2, PV 3, PV 3:1, PV 3:3 PV 5, PV 5:1, PV 7, PV 13, PV 14, PV 15, PV 16, PV 18, PV 19, PV 23, PV 25, PV 27, PV 29, PV 31, PV 32, PV 36, PV 37, PV39, PV 42, PV 44, PV 47, PV 48, PV 49, PV 50, PV55, PV 58, PV 171,
Amethyst; Cobalt Arsenate; Copper Violet; Violet Hematit; Folium; Han Purple; Manganous Phosphate; Purple Sugilite; Purpurite; Silver chromate; Vesuvianite
Historic Violet Pigments without Color Index Names
Historic Violet Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Violet  |   CI Pigment Violet  | KEYTop ^
Color Index Name Code
CI Pigment Name
Common, Historic and Marketing Names
Chemical Composition
Color Description
†Long Term Effects of Light
Oil Ab.
Oil Absorption
Side Notes
N/A Amethyst Amethyst;
Amethyst Genuine* [DS.w]
N/A Quartz crystal, purple color due to iron impurites (Ref mindat). (Pics);
Amethyst (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);
pinkish purple 4 I - - (Ref) Pigment Compendium By Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddal;
* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.
N/A Cobalt Arsenate Arsenate of Cobalt;
Cobalt Arsenate [HOd];
Cobalt Arsenic Oxide;
Cobalt Bloom*;
Cobalt Crust*;
Cobaltous Arsenate;
Cobalt Violet;
Cobalt Violet Light [HOd];
Red Cobalt Ochre*;
Tricobalt diarsenate;
Vivianite Arsenate of Cobalt;
77350 Cobalt (II) Arsenate;
Anhydrous cobalt arsenate;
Cobalt Arsenic Oxide (Pigment Compendium, Ref);

* Natural Mineral Erythrite (Mineral Ref), (Mineral Ref);
Roselite (Mineral Ref);

*** Zaffre is an early alchemy substance of impure cobalt arsenate;

CAS 24719-19-5
Pale Redish to medium purple 4 I * - D Poisonous;

*" it is absolutely permanent and transparent but has little tinting power.
It has some use as an artists' oil and water color pigment" (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77350)
N/A Copper Violet Copper Violet;
Guyard's Violet
77432 Cupric potassium ferrocyanide, Prepared by heating the precipitate of copper ammonium sulfate and potassium ferrocyanide at 170°C (Ref The Manufacture of Mineral and Lake Pigments (1901) By Josef Bersch) Blue Violet I - - B "a violet pigment having a great covering power" (Ref Colorindex 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77432)
N/A Violet Hematite Blood Stone;
Blue Ridge Violet Hematite [NP.p];
Bruno Inglese;
Caput Mortem;
Caput Mortum;
Caput Mortuum;
Colore Morello;
Corpum Mortum;
Côte d'Azur Violet [DS.w];
Mummy Violet [NP.p];
Pigment Red 102;
Vetriolo Romano Bruciato;
Vetriolo Cotto;
Violet Hematite [DS.w | NP.p];
N/A Violet Hematite (Ref); Natural Iron Oxide Light violet to deep dark violet 2-3 I - A -
N/A Folium Biseth of Folium;
English Woad;
Trapilo Blue;
Trapito Blue;
Turnsole Violet;
N/A Lake extract from the fruit of the Turnsole or Heliotropum Plant Reddish to Bluish Violets 4 IV - A Can change color due to PH similar to litmus; Has been used in manuscript illumination
N/A Han Purple China Blue;
Chinese Purple;
Han Blue;
Han Purple [KP.p];
N/A Barium copper silicate; Vivid purple 4 I - A Being studied by physicists for it's Quantum behaviour. (Ref)
N/A Manganous Phosphate Manganous Phosphate 77745 Manganous phosphate - - - - - -
N/A Purple Sugilite Royal Azel;
Royal Lavulite;
Royal Purple Sugilite;
Purple Turquoise;
Gem Sugilite;
Royal Lazelle;
Sugilite Geniune* [DS.w];
N/A Semi-precious gem: Potassium Sodium Lithium Iron Manganese Aluminum Silicate.; (Ref) Deep reddish purple** - - - A Little info of it's use as a pigment is available. Can be attained from some sources for use in cosmetics;
*more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other mineral pigments use for art at the watercolor Handprint.com site;
** seems to lighten the finer it is ground.
N/A Purpurite Iron Manganese Phosphate;
Pigment Violet 16;
Purpurite [KP.p];
Purpurite Genuine* [DS.o.w]
N/A Mostly Manganese (III) Phosphate may have impuities of iron; Natural form of Pigment Violet 16 probably without as much processing (Ref), (Ref), (Ref) Pink to deep reddish violet 2 I 23-26 B

Rare mineral (Ref);
* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other mineral pigments use for art at the watercolor Handprint.com site

N/A Silver chromate Purple Red;
Silver Chromate
77825 Silver chromate: Precipitate silver nitrate with potassium chromate (Ref Inorganic Colouring Matters, Color Index 3rd Ed.) Reddish purple - - - - -
N/A Vesuvianite Xanthite;
Vesuvianite [KP.p]
N/A Metamorphic mineral; Complex iron-manganese-silicate; (Ref) light dull purple - I - A -
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CI Natural Voilet
Historic Violet Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Violet  |  CI Pigment Violet  | KEYTop ^
Color Index Name Code
CI Pigment Name
Common, Historic and Marketing Names
Chemical Composition
Color Description
†Long Term Effects of Light
Oil Ab.
Oil Absorption
Side Notes
NV1 Tyrian Purple Argaman;
Byzantium Purple;
C.I. Natural Violet 1;
French Purple;
Genuine, Imperial Purple [KP.p];
Grecian Purple;
Imperial Purple;
Murex Purple;
Purpurissum [KP.p];
Purple Fish;
Purple of Mollusca;
Purple of the Ancients;
Roman Ostrum;
Royal Purple;
Shellfish Purple;
Tyrian Purple;
75800 Preparation from the ink of the shellfish Murex trunculis and Murex brandaris;
6,6´-dibromindigo with other impurites;

CAS 19201-53-7
Reddish to Bluish Deep Purple 4 III - A 1 gram of this dye
is made from the secretion of 10,000 sea snails. (Ref).; Synthesized from Coal Tar in 1904
CI Pigment Violet
Historic Violet Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Violet  |  CI Pigment Violet  | KEYTop ^
Color Index Name Code
CI Pigment Name
Common, Historic and Marketing Names
Chemical Composition
Color Description
†Long Term Effects of Light
Oil Ab.
Oil Absorption
Side Notes
PV1 Rhodamine Violet Basic Violet 10;
Blue Violet;
Brilliant Purple [WN.g];
Brilliant Red Violet [SCH.w | WN.g];
C.I. Pigment Violet 1;
Fast Rose Lake;
Pigment Violet 1;
Purple Violet;
Rhodamine 610;
Tyrian Rose [SE.w]
Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-
molybdic acid salt;
CAS 1326-03-0
Bright fluorescent reddish violet 4 IV** 50 B* * "The fluorescent dye Rhodamine B is toxic, and its use is banned in food, textiles, and cosmetics." "With proper preparation, the pigment Rhodamine B Lake is considered harmless, even if ingested." -Dick Blick Site (Ref).;

**Fluorescent paints are not recommended for permanent art work unless it will be completely protected from light.
PV1:1 Pigment Violet 1:1 C.I. Pigment Violet 1:1;
Pigment Violet 1:1;
- Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-
molybdic acid salt
Bright reddish violet 4 III 50 A -
PV1:2 Rhodamine B Molybdate C.I. Pigment Violet 1:2;
Normandy Magenta;
Rhodamine B Molybdate
45170:4 Rhodamine B Molybdate - - IV

† Darkens
108 A
PV2 Purple Brillfast Vivid Magenta 6B;
C.I. Pigment Violet 2;
Fanal Violet D 5460;
Light Purple;
Parma Violet;
Pigment Violet 2;
Purple Lake;
Vivid Magenta 6B;
Xanthene PTMA;
45175:1 Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-
molybdic acid salt;

CAS 1326-04-1
Bright reddish violet - III 45 A -
PV2:2 Pigment Violet 2:2 C.I. Pigment Violet 2:2;
Pigment Violet 2:2;
Rhodamine 3B PTMA
45174:2 Rhodamine Phosphotungsto-
molybdic acid salt
- - III 45 A -
PV3 M Methyl Violet Blue Violet [SE];
Brilliant Blue Violet [SCH.w];
C.I. Pigment Violet 3;
Fast Violet Lake;
Gentian Violet;
Light Purple;
Methyl Violet;
Methyl Violet Tungstomolybdate;
Methyl Violet SMA;
M Methyl Violet;
Parma Violet;
Pigment Violet 3;
Purple Lake;
Spectrum Violet [WN.g];
42535:2 Triphenylmethane Phosphotungsto-
molybdic acid salt;

CAS 1325-82-2
Bright bluish violet 4 IV

† Darkens
55-59 A*
"Methyl Violet 2B is harmful to living cells and organisms, so it is diluted in medical and biological applications as a topical fungicide or disinfectant."= Dick Blick Website (Ref)
PV3:1 Methyl Violet C.I. Pigment Violet 3:1;
Lamprolac Violet BM;
Methyl Violet;
Methyl Violet Molybdate;
Pigment Violet 3:1
42535:4 Triphenylmethane Silicomolybdic acid salt;

CAS 68647-35-8
Bright bluish violet 4 IV

† Darkens
55-95 A
PV3:3 Methyl Violet Tannate C.I. Pigment Violet 3:3;
Methyl Violet Tannate;
Pigment Violet 3:3
42535:5 Triphenylmethane Tannic acid salt;

CAS 68308-41-8
Bright bluish violet 4 IV 55-86 A -
PV5 Alizarine Violet Alizarine Violet [KP.p];
Alizarin Violet Lake (hue) [SE.os];
C.I. Pigment Violet 5;
Fanchon Maroon;
Pigment Violet 5;
Quinizarin Maroon [DS.o]
58055 Anthraquinone;

CAS 22297-70-7
Bright Violet 4 II-III* - A
* Good lightfastness in mass tone but poor in tints
PV5:1 Quinazarine Super Maroon

Alizarine Violet (hue) [GU | KP.p];
C.I. Pigment Violet 5:1;
Pigment Violet 5:1;
Quinazarine Super Maroon;

58055:1 Anthraquinone;

CAS 1328-04-7
Bright reddish violet - II-III* - A *Blue wool scale 7-8 in mass tone, 5-6 in tints
PV7 Anthraquinone violet Anthraquinone violet;
C.I. Pigment Violet 7;
Pigment Violet 7
- Anthraquinone - - III - A -
PV13 Transparent Violet B Anthraquinone;
C.I. Pigment Violet 13;
Pigment Violet 13
- Naphthol;
Maroon Violet- 4 II - A -
PV14 Cobalt violet Caprice Violet [GU];
C.I. Pigment Violet 14;
Cobalt Magenta [DR];
Cobalt Phosphate;
Cobalt Pink;
Cobalt Red;
Cobalt Red Violet;
Cobalt Rose [GR.o];
Cobalt Violet [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | CL | DB.w | DR | DV.k.o.w | GB.o | GR.w | GU | LK | MG.o.w | PF.w | RGH.o.p | RT.o.w | SCHM.o | SQ.a | UT | WN.o.w.w];
Cobalt Violet Dark [AS | KP.p | MH.o | OH.o.w | SI.p | WNd];
Cobalt Violet Deep [BX.o | BR | DS.o.w | HO | KA.p | MA.o.p | LB.o | RF.e | SE | WL.o.p];
Cobalt Violet Light [HO.o.w | MH.o | OH.o.w];
Cobalt Violet Pale [MA.o.p];
Cobalt Violet Pink Shade [BR];
Cobalt Violet Pink Shade Light [BR];
Cobalt Raspberry [GU];
Cobalt Violet Rose [DV];
Cobalto Violeta;
Kobalt Violet;
Light True Cobalt Violet [PF.o];
Pigment Violet 14;
True Cobalt Violet Light [PF.o];
Violet de Cobalt;
Violetto cobalto
Cobaltous phosphate;
Cobalt phosphate;
Calcined Cobalt (II) Oxide and Phosphorus (V) Oxide formig an interdiffused, homogeneous crystalline phosphate;

How Cobalt Violet is made at webexhibits.org

CPMA 8-11-1

CAS 10101-56-1;
CAS 13455-36-2'
CAS 00088-04-0
Light reddish to Deep dark blue Violet 2-3 I 16-24 B
PV15 Ultramarine Violet Cobalt Violet (hue) [LK];
C.I. Pigment Violet 15;
Mineral Violet [HO.w];
Pigment Violet 15;
Ultra Violet;
Ultramarine Pink [WL.o.p];
Ultramarine Red [DS.w | MA.o(artis)];
Ultramarine Rose [MA.p];
Ultramarine Violet [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | CAS.k | DB.o | DS.a.o.w | DV.k.w | EP.p | GB.o.o | GO.a | GU | KA.p | LK | MA.o.o(artis).p.w | MG.a.o | MH.o | OH.a.o.w | RF.e | RGH.o.p | RT.o.w | SE.a.o | SQ.a | UT.o | WL.o.p | WN.a.o.w];
Ultramarine Violet Blue Shade [GU];
Ultramarine Violet Dark [KP.p];
Ultramarine Violet Deep [GU | MG.w];
Ultramarine Violet Light reddish [KP.p];
Ultramarine Violet Medium [KP.p];
Ultramarine Violet, Reddish dark [SI.p];
Ultramarine Violet, Reddish light [SI.p];
Ultramarine Violet Red Shade [GU];
Ultra Violet [WN.o];
Ultra Violet Reddish [SQ.a];
Ultra Violet Blue Shade [TA.a];
Ultra Violet Red Shade [TA.a];
Violet Outremer;
Violet Ultramarine
77007 Inorganic;
Sodium aluminium sulfosilicate (blue shade); sodium aluminium sulfur silicate (red shade);
The creation of Ultramarine Violet is carried out by heating at 200–250°C a mixture of ultramarine blue and 2.5–5% ammonium chloride. It takes 4 days of calcining while beening exposed to the air until a purple hue is created.
Ultramarine Red is derived from ultramarine violet by heating it for four hours with gaseous hydrochloric acid at 200°C. It's creation can also be accomplished by heating ultramarine violet at a even higher temperatures with gaseous nitric acid (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008);.

CAS 12769-96-9

Blue shade to mid-shade, pinkish to violet

† some tests have shown it to whiten slightly after a long period of time

3 I 33-56 A -
PV16 Manganese Violet Burgandy Violet;
C.I. Pigment Violet 16;
Cosmetic Manganese Violet [GU];
Manganese Dark Violet;
Manganese Violet [GEN | BX.o.w | CH | DB.o | DR | DS.o.w | DV.k.w | GB.o.p | KP.p | MA.o(artis).p | MH.o | RGH.o.p | RF.e | SCH.w | SE.o.os.w | SI.p | SQ.a | SV | UT.o.w | WL.o.p];
Manganese Violet Bleuness [OH.o.w];
Manganese Violet Blue Shade [GU];
Manganese Violet-Blueness [OH.o.w];
Manganese Violet Deep [KA.p];
Manganese Violet Reddish [OH.o.w];
Manganese Violet Red Shade [GU];
Manganese Violet Bleuness [OH.o.w];
Mineral Violet [AS | DR | HO.o.wo | MA.o.w | MG.w | SE];
Mineral Violet Light [LB.o];
Nuernberger Violet;
Nurnberg Violet;
Nürnberg Violet;
Permanent Blue Violet [RT.o];
Permanent Mauve [WN.o];
Permanent Violet [WNd];
Permanent Violet Light [CH];
Phosphate of Manganese;
Pigment Violet 16;
77742 Inorganic;
A double salt of Phosphuric Acid with Manganese and Ammonium;
Manganese ammonium pyrophosphate;
Ammonium manganic pyrophosphate;

CAS 10101-66-3
Red shade to blue shade deep purple 2 I 23-26 B
Decomposed by strong acids and alkalis.
PV18 Ferro Light Violet C.I. Pigment Violet 18;
Ferro Light Violet;
Pigment Violet 18
- - - - - - - -
PV19 Quinacridone Violet Acra Crimson;
Acra Violet;
Acridone Red;
Alizarin Crimson (hue) [DV.af];
Alizarin Crimson (Quinacridone) [DV];
Alizarin Rose (hue) [DB.w | GR.w];
Alps Red [HO.a.o];
Antique Pink [HO];
Australian Red Violet [MT];
Bocour Red;
Cadium Red Deep Hue (primaire) [SE.o];
Caesar Purple [SCHM.o];
Carmine (hue) [SCH.g];
Carmine (quinacridone) [DV];
Carmine Hue [GR.w];
C.I. Pigment Violet 19;
Cinquasia Red (Y/B/R shades);
Cinquasia® Violet RT 201 D [KP.p];
Cinquasia® Violet [KP.p];
Cinquasia Violet (B/R shades);
Dark violet;
Deep Rose [RT];
Flinders Red Violet [AS];
Garnet (hue) [PF.o];
Garnet Red [LB.o];
Genuine Rose (hue) [LK];
Hostaperm® Red [KP.p];
Lefranc Crimson [LB.o];
Madder Red (hue) [SCH];
Magenta [BX.o.w | DV | DB.o | SE.o | SQ.a];
Matisse Rose Madder [MT];
Mauve [LK];
Monastral Red;
Monastral Violet;
Permanent Carmine [SCH.w];
Permanent Magenta [AS | HO.w | PF.w | RT| SE.w | | WN.o];
Permanent Red Violet [RT.w];
Permanent Red Purple [RT.a];
Permanent Rose [AS | DR | RT | WN.a.g.k.o.w.w.wo];
Permanent Rose Quinacridone [DV];
Permanent Violet [LK];
Permanent Violet Medium [RT.o];
Pigment Violet 19;
Phthalo Crimson [GR.w?*];
Phthalo Red [GR.w?*];
Phthalo Red Rose [GR.o.wo?*];
Primary Magenta [GO.a | RT.a.wo];
Primary Red [LB.o | SE.a.os];
Primary Red - Magenta [MA.a.o.w.w];
Pink Quinacridone;
Process Magenta [WN.a];
Purple [MR.o | LK];
Purple Lake [WNd];
Quinacridone 195 [GU];
Quinacridone Alizarin Crimson [DV.o.w];
Quinacridone Blue Violet [LQ.a];
Quinacridone Carmine [DV.w];
Quinacridone Crimson [LQ.a];
Quinacridone Garnet [CH];
Quinacridone Magenta [CH | DR | RF.e | WN];
Quinacridone Permanent Rose [DV.w];
Quinacridone Purple [OH.a];
Quinacridone Red [GEN | CAS.k | CL | DB.a.w | DS.a.i.o.w | DV.k | GB.o | GO.a | GR.o.w.wo | GU | HO.wo | KA.o.p | MA.o(artis) | MW.o | RF.e | RGH.o.p | SCH.a | SE.a | SQ.a | TA.a | UT.a.o.w | WL.o];
Quinacridone Red Violet [CR.a.o | RGH.o.p];
Quinacridone Rose [DB.w | DS.a.o.w | GR.w | LK | MA.o(artis).p | MG.a.g.o.w | RT.a.a.o.o.w | SQ.a | UT.o];
Quinacridone Rose Deep [DV.w | OH,a;
Quinacridone Rose Light [OH.a];
Quinacridone Rose Red [GU];
Quinacridone Violet [GEN | CAS.k | CL | DR | DS.a.i.o.p.w | DV.k.w | GB.o | GO.a | GU | HO.wo | KA.o.p | MG.a.g.o.w | MW.o | PF | RGH.o.p | SCH.a.g.w | SI.p | SQ.a | TA.a | UT.a.o.w | WL.o];
Quinacridone Violet B;
Quinacridone Violet Deep [RGH.o];
Quindo® Pink D [KP.p];
Quindo® Red R 6713 [KP.p];
Quindo® Violet;
Red Rose [DV];
Red Rose Deep [DV.af.o];
Red Rose Deep (Quinacridone) [DV.o];
Red Violet [CR | HO | JO.ag | PF.w];
Rose [RT];
Rose Doré (hue)[AS];
Rose Lake [BX.o.w | MA.o.w.w];
Rose Madder (hue) [AS | DV.o];
Rose Madder Lake (hue) [SE.t]
Rose Madder (Quinacridone) [DV.o];
Rose Pale Lake [BX.w];
Rose Permanent [BX.o.w
MW.wo ]
Rose Violet [HO];
Rouge Primaire [LB.o];
Rowney Rose [DR];
Rowney Red Violet [DR];
Royal Purple Lake [OH];
Ruby Red [LB.av.o | SCH.w];
Scheveningen Rose Deep [OH.o.w];
Scheveningen Violet [OH.o.w];
Solid Madder (hue) [PF];
Spectrum Crimson [AS];
Thalo Crimson [GR.w];
Thalo Red [GR.w];
Thalo Red Rose [GR.o.wo];
Thio Violet [AS];
Trans Quin Yellow Shade;

LBNL Pigment Database Spectral radiative properties;
Monastral Red;

CAS 1047-16-1

Bright to deep blueish to reddish violet

†Dulls, Fades, Hue shift towards blue

4 I 44-70 A
* The Dick Blick site has the "Thalo" Grumbacher Pre-Tested Oils labled "Phthalo", to my knowlege Grumbacher has always used the term "Thalo" in their line.
PV23 Dioxazine Violet Aubergine Violet [SI.p];
Antique Violet [HO.w];
Aubergine Violet;
Blue Violet [SE.os | SCH];
Brilliant violet [SCH];
Calbizol Violet;
Carbazole Dioxazine;
Carbazole Violet [GEN | BR | CL | DS.a.i.o.w | KA.ad | RGH.o.p];
Carbazole Violet (dioxanine) [KA.p];
Chromothal Violet;
C.I. Pigment Violet 23;
Cobalt Violet Hue [MR.o | LK];
Da Vinci Violet [DV.w];
Deep Oriental Violet [PF];
Deep Violet [CH | DR | HO.ag];
Diox Purple [CR];
Dioxide Purple [CR | JO.ag];
Dioxacine Violet [MR.o];
Dioxanine Violet [KA.o];
Dioxazine Mauve [BX.o.w | OH.o.w];
Dioxazine Purple [GEN | CR.a.o | DB.a | DV.af.k | GB.o.o | GO.a | GR.o.o.wo | JO.ag | LQ.a | MGd | MT | MW.o.wo | PF.o | SE.a | UT.a.o.w | WN.a.k..wo];
Dioxazine Violet [ CAS.k | GU | HO.wo | LK | OH.a | SE.o | SQ.a | TA.a | WN.w];
Dioxazine Violet Deep [LA.a];
Econo Dioxazine Violet [GU];
Egypt Violet [LB.av]
Egypte Violet [LB.o];
Egyptian Violet [LB.o | RF.e | WL.o];
Fragonard Violet [PF.w];
Flinders Blue Violet [AS];
Mauve [DR | GR.w | SQ.a | SCH.w];
Mauve (Dioxazine Purple) [GR];
Op. Violet [HO];
Oriental Violet Deep [PF.o];
Permanent Mauve [DR];
Permanent Violet [HO.o.w | MA.p | SCH | UT];
Permanent Violet Blueish [MA.o.w.w];
Pigment Violet 23;
Pigment Violet 23 (blue shade);
Pigment Violet 23 (red shade);
Proprietary Purple (Dioxazine Purple) [GRd];
Studio Violet [KP.p];
Translucent Violet [SCHM.o];
Transparent Garnet [HO.o];
Transparent Violet [HO.o];
Violet [DR | HO.a | MA.a | SCH.a.g];
Violet Bleu [LB.o];
Violet (Blue Shade) [LB.o];
Violet Dark [SCH.o];
Violet Lake [MA.o];
Violet Permanent [PF.w];
Winsor Violet [WN.a.a.g.w];
Winsor Violet (Dioxazine) [WN.o]
51319 Dioxazine;

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;
Dioxazine Purple;

CAS 6358-30-1

Deep dark blue or red shade violet


3 II-IV* 35-94 A

*ASTM gives light fastness ratings for a red shade of Dioxazine as fair III and a blue shade as poor IV.
In tests on watercolor paints, Bruce MacEvoy of Handprint.com gives this pigment a II, with a wide variation between brands (Ref). It stands to reason that source, manufacturing process or impurities play a role in the light fastness of this pigment. Different mediums or binders may also give different results. I would suggest making your own tests on the formulation or brand of artist paint you have.

PV25 Pigment Violet 25 C.I. Pigment Violet 25;
Pigment Violet 25;
Suimei Fast Violet B
12321 Monoazo;

CAS 6358-46-9
Bright violet - - - A -
PV27 Permanent Violet C.I. Pigment Violet 27;
Permanent Violet;
Pigment Violet 27;
Methyl Violet;
Violet Toner
42535:3 Triphenylmethane Copper Ferrocyanide Salt;

CAS 12237-62-6
Violet - IV 97 B -
PV29 Perylene Violet Amaranthine;
Anthraquinone Violet [GU];
C.I. Pigment Violet 29;
Fast Bordeaux;
Luprafil Violet;
Palamid Violet;
Perrindo Violet [GU];
Perylene Violet [DS.w | WN.a.g.w];
Pigment Violet 29;
Sunfast Violet;
71129 Organic;
Perylene; Anthraquinone;

CAS 81-33-4
Dark dull red purple 4 I - A -
PV31 Isoviolanthrone Violet

C.I. Pigment Violet 31;
Isoviolanthrone Violet;
Pigment Violet 31;
Polysolve Brilliant Violet;
Vat Violet 1

60010 Isoviolanthrone Dichloro derivative;

CAS 1324-55-6
Bluish violet 4 I M A May be out of production
PV32 Benzimiazolone Violet Benzimiazolone Violet;
Bordeaux [DS.o.w];
C.I. Pigment Violet 32;
Novoperm Bordeaux HF3R;
Pigment Violet 32
12517 Monoazo;

CAS 12225-08-0
Bluish violet

† Darkens
3 I-III* 81 A * apparently has only fair lightfastness with tints in alkyd-melamine paints, but very good (blue scale 7 of 8) in inks (watercolors?) (Ref: p.366, Industrial organic pigments, By Willy Herbst, Klaus Hunger, Gerhard Wilker)
PV36 Indanthrene Violet Bayeux Violet;
C.I. Pigment Violet 36;
C.I. Vat Violet 2;
Indanthrene Violet;
Indanthrene Brilliant Violet RR;
Pigment Violet 36;
Thioindigo red;
Thioindigo red violet;
Thio Violet [GU];
Vat violet 2
73385 Indanthrene;
Indigoid based
Red Shade Violet
3 I? 45-55 A -
PV37 Dioxazine Violet Blue Violet [HO];
Chromothal Violet;
C.I. Pigment Violet 37;
Dioxazine Purple [MG.a.g.o.w];
Dioxazine Violet [KP.p];
Dioxazine Violet Red Shade [GU];
Pigment Violet 37
51345 Dioxazine;

CAS 57971-98-9

Red and blue shades of dark deep purple.;


3 I-II 52 A
Said to be more lightfast than PV23 in artist's paints (handprint Ref); (Dick Blick Ref;

PV39 Crystal Violet Blue Violet [SE.w];
C.I. Pigment Violet 39;
Crystal Violet;
Pigment Violet 39;
Triphenylmethane Violet;
42555:2 Triphenylmethane Phosphomolybdic salt;

CAS 64070-98-0;
CAS 467-63-0;
CAS 67953-39-3;
CAS 68477-21-4

Bright Violet.;

†Dulls, Darkens, Fades

3 III - B* * Several studies have linked long-term exposure to Crystal Violet with cancer (Ref)
PV42 Quinacridone Violet C.I. Pigment Violet 42;
Magenta [SCH.w];
Monastral Maroon B;
Pigment Violet 42;
Quinacridone Maroon;
Quinacridone Pink [DS.a.o.w];
Quinacridone Pink Madder [GU];
Quinacridone Rose Madder [GU];
Royal Purper Lake [OH.o.w];
Royal Purple Lake [OH.o.w];
Trans Quin Blue Shade;
- Quinacridone Dull reddish violet 3 I 45 A -
PV 44 Pigment Violet 44 C.I. Pigment Violet 44;
Pigment Violet 44;
Symuler Fast Violet 4142
- Monoazo;

CAS 87209-55-0
Mid shade Violet - - - - -
PV47 Cobalt Lithium Violet Phosphate C.I. Pigment Violet 47;
Cobalt Violet [HO.o.wo];
Cobalt Violet Light [KP.p];
Cobalt Lithium Violet Phosphate;
Pigment Raspberry PK 5031;
Pigment Violet 47
77363 Inorganic;
Cobalt lithium violet phosphate
Made by the calcination of Cobalt (II) Oxide, Lithium (I) Oxide, and Phosphorus (V) Oxide to give a crystalline phosphate with the constitution CoLiPO4.

CPMA 8-12-1

CAS 68610-13-9
Red shade Violet - I - B -
PV48 Cobalt Magnesium Borate C.I. Pigment Violet 48;
Cobalt Magnesium Borate;
Cobalt Magnesium Red-Blue Borate;
Pigment Violet 48;

Cobalt magnesium red-blue borate;
Obtained from high temperature calcination of a mixture with varied amounts of Cobalt (II) Oxide, Magnesium (II) Oxide, and Boron (III) Oxide to make a ionic and homogeneous intertwined crystalline borate;

How Cobalt Violet is made at webexhibits.org

CPMA 2-02-1 (4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments)

CAS 68608-93-5

Light mid shade to reddish Violet - - 24 B -
PV49 Cobalt Pale Violet C.I. Pigment Violet 49;
Cobalt Red Violet [LB.o];
Cobalt Violet [DS.w];
Cobalt Violet Brilliant;
Cobalt Violet Brilliant Light [KP.p];
Cobalt Pale Violet;
Cobalt Violet Light [DS.o | GB.o | RF.e | SV | UTd |WL.o];
Cobalt Violet Light (Reddish) [WL.o.p];
Caprice Violet No.102;
Pigment Violet 49
77362 Cobalt ammonium phosphate

How Cobalt Violet is made at webexhibits.org

CAS 14590-13-7
Light reddish to Deep blue violet 3 I - B -
PV50 Pigment Violet 50

C.I. Pigment Violet 59;
Fast Violet B;
Pigment Violet 50

12322 Monoazo;

CAS 76233-81-3
Bright bluish violet - - - - -
Quinacridone Purple C.I. Pigment Violet 55;
Pigment Violet 55;
Quinacridone Purple [DS.w];
Quindo® Violet 55;
- Organic;
A "solid solution" formed from the mixing of 2,9-dimethoxyquinacridone and 2,9-dichloroquinacridone resulting in a unique crystal form. (Ref);
Bluish violet to violet blue 4 I
- A

For a limited you can get a free tube of Daniel Smith Quinacridone Purple (PV 55) with the purchase of their Quinacridone Watercolor Set.

Claimed to be superior to Quinacridone Violet PV 19 (Ref Coating Tech June 2010, pg 48);

The hue is said to be closer to carbazole violet (PV 23) than PV 19 and PV 29 (Ref)

PV58 MayaCrom Violet V2001F C.I. Pigment Violet 58;
MayaCrom Violet V2001F;
Mayan Violet [DS.w*];
Pigment Violet 58
- Patented Organic/Inorganic hybred based on the chemistry of Mayan Blue - - II 65 A "evolved from work done at the University of Texas-El Paso to reconstruct the unique vibrant blue color developed by the Maya civilization more than 1000 years ago, using an inorganic and organic component to produce a highly stable hybrid pigment."
- TOR Minerals International Press release, (Ref),;
* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.
PV171? Pigment Violet 171 C.I. Pigment Violet 171;
Azoic Plum Violet [GU];
Pigment Violet 171
- Organic Deep red violet - - - A -

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Jump to: Manufacturer Codes  |  Binder/Medium Codes

Color Index Name Code:
This is the official code given by the Color Index International for that particular pigment. The first 2 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. N/A (not applicable) means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number.

PY = Pigment Yellow;
PO = Pigment Orange;
PR = Pigment Red;
PV = Pigment Violet;
PB = Pigment Blue;
PG = Pigment Green;
PBr = Pigment Brown;
PBk = Pigment Black;
PW = Pigment White;
PM = Pigment Metal

CI (Color Index) Pigment Name:
This is the official name given in the Color Index (third edition, 1997), or the name the first manufacturer or original patent holder has given that pigment, in a few instances where neither of the previous are available, I have used the actual chemical name. Where a pigment has no color index name, I have used the traditional historic name or the mineral/chemical names.

Common, Historic and Marketing Names:
These are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any name but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used. They have been culled (in order of importance) from paint manufacturer and supplier literature, The Color Index, Third edition (1997), Historical Books on pigments and art (see Free Art e-Books), Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works), various dictionaries and encyclopedias (old and new), and various web sites in particular AMIEN.org, Dick Blick Artist Supply, Handprint.com, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments, PCImag.com and Kremer Pigments, along with the paint, chemical and pigment manufacture sites.
Marketing names given by paint manufacturers are often misleading, deceptive or descriptive of the color and not the actual pigment. Where there is a common historic name associated with that pigment I have used "GEN" to denote the generic common historically accepted name of that particular pigment. When a manufacturer has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name, I have indicated it with the "(hue)" designation.

C.I. (Color Index) Pigment # (number):
These are the chemical composition number given that pigment by the Color Index International (see Colour Index Number Categories here)

Chemical Composition:
These are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. Where I can fine them, I have included CAS numbers. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways or the pigment is a group of chemicals rather than a single one. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses but only basic information that should help you find further information. I have included references designated with "(Ref)" where further information can be attained.

Color Description:
This is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain english. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. I have not in all cases used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this, but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes (The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition), I have used that description, when not, I have used other reference sources in particularly manufacturer or supplier literature.

Opacity- Transparency*: 
The opacity and transparency is only a general reference, where available, i have used the Color index's designation or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. Many pigments exist in both transparent and opaque versions, or can be manipulated by the paint or pigment manufactures for a particular purpose. A general designation such as given will not always be the case in any particular formulation.

1 = Opaque,
2 = Semi-Opaque,
3 = Semi-Transparent,
4 = Transparent

Light Fastness Rating**:
The light fastness rating is only a general reference, where available i have used the ASTM or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. The ASTM has not rated all pigments, so this rating in this database will not always be the ASTM rating but a rating culled from other sources, most importantly manufactures literature. The ASTM ratings have a 5 increment scale and the blue-wool scale is 8, in this database lighfastness ratings have been condensed or averaged to a less specific 4 designations. I can can not cover every possible paint, binder, or pigment formulation in this chart as it would take too much time and space; there are so many variables as to make this designation, in this database, of only marginal use. In particular the quality of the actual pigment manufacture has much influence on a pigments fastness to light, heat and other chemicals. Additives, binder, and many other factors all have a influence on light fastness or fastness to other environmental influences. Whether a paint is watercolor, oil color, tempera, etc. has an effect on light fastness. Varnishes and other treatments to the painting surface or support can have an influence too. The only way to be sure, is to make your own tests on the paint or pigment you have. Reference the following:
(ASTM D4303 - 10 opens new window); (AMIEN.org Thread - opens new window)

I = Excellent,
II = Good,
III = Poor,
= Fugitive/Very Poor

Oil Absorption: is in ml/100mg
The oil absorption figure has been arrived at from the pigment manufacturer's literature or artist reference sources (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works).

When the specific numbers are unavailable:   H = High,   M = Medium,   L = Low

The hazardous properties is a general designation of a possible hazard. It is assumed intelligent people will use at least ordinary care when handling all paints or pigments. The designation has been arrived at from, in most cases, the manufacturer's literature, MSDS sheets at the Oxford University Chemical Laboratory., or the City of Tucson's Environmental Management Division's searchable database of Health & Safety in the Arts. All paints and especially dry pigments can be hazardous if carelessly handled, but if handled properly with common sense all but the most dangerous can be used safely.

A = Low hazard, but do not handle carelessly;
B = Possible Hazard if improperly or carelessly handled;
C = Hazardous, use appropriate precautions for handling mildly toxic substances; 
D =
Extremely Toxic, only attempt working with this pigment (especially the dry form) in laboratory like conditions and with proper safety equipment (see "Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposal of chemicals" at google books opens new window; or PDF format here);

Side Notes:
These are typically interesting things I have read, or information collected on a pigment that may be worth further study. They are NOT statements of absolute fact. Many pigment qualities are rumors, old wife's tales and misconceptions repeated over and over until they accepted as fact without any scientific proof. References (Ref) may be provided.

(hue) = When the word "hue" in in parenthesis (hue), it refers to a hue color not designated on the label, when the word "hue" is not in parenthesis is part of the pigment name as per ASTM guidelines.

(Ref) = A link to a reference source. This may be the source of the information I have given. or a link to more detailed information.

? = a question mark next to a name, note, or data code indicates that it may or may not be correct information due to conflicting information, questionable reference, possible typo or other discrepancies in the manufacturer or other reference documentation. Further study is needed to clarify.

Effects of long term light exposure are given when known, this may allow an artist to anticipate color changes and possibly use them as an advantage. These effects are all relative to the pigments inherent light fastness and may take decades or even centuries in museum conditions to be visible.
Fades = Becomes more Transparent;  Lightens = Loses chroma but maintains relative transparency or opaque character;  Whitens = Becomes lighter and more opaque;  Darkens = Becomes darker but retains hue;  Dulls = Loses chroma towards neutral;  Blackens = Turns very dark or black losing chroma;  Hue shift = Changes hue towards a different color

Paint or Pigment Manufacturer Code & Art Medium:*****    Key Top ^, Page Top^
Paint/Pigment Manufacturer Code:
(links below are to the official manufacturer web site and will open in a new window)
DG = Daniel Green
EP = Earth Pigments
GB = Gamblin
GEN = Common Generic term
GO = Golden
GR = Grumbacher
GU = Guerra Paint & Pigment
HO = Holbien
JO = Jo Sonja
KA = Kama Pigments
KP = Kremer Pigmente  (USA site)
Art medium or binder code:   Key Top ^, Page Top^

Clicking on the paint or pigment manufacturer code next to the pigment name will take you off site where more information can be found. The link will most often take you to an art supplier where you can find more specific art medium or paint binder info, purchasing source, pigment properties, pigment history, MSDS sheets, and whether it is the artist premium or student economy grade.

d in italics next to the pigment manufacturer or art supplier code indicates a discontinued pigment or paint.
All art medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the "student" or economy grade, not the "artist's" grade paint.

a = Acrylic Paint;  
ad = Aqueous pigment dispersions>;
af = Fluid Acylics or Airbrush Colors;
ag = Acrylic Gouache or Matte Acrylic Paints;
av = Acrylic Vinyl Paints;
k = Alkyd paints;
c = Casein or milk paint;
e = Encaustic paints;
g = Gouache;
i = Ink (printing ink or pigmented drawing inks);
o = Oil Paint;
os = Oil sticks, Oil Bars, Oil Base Pigment Sticks;
p = Dry Pigment;
t = Tempera or Egg Tempera;
w = Watercolor Paint;
ws = Watercolor sticks, Watercolor Base Pigment Sticks or Bars;
wo = Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.

Other than gouache, only single pigment paints and pigments are included. Gouache is designated distinct from watercolors because it is often mixed with white or additives to make it matte and/or opaque and that is not usually indicated on the paint manufactures literature. Clicking on the art medium code will give you more specific paint binder information. Clicking on the art supplier's artistic medium code will also take you to more information on the paint pigment that may include: whether it is the "artists" premium or "student" grade, MSDS sheets, pigment history and additional artist paints or pigments hazard & environmental information.
Other art material or medium forms such as pastel, oil pastels, oil bars, dyes and ceramic glazes will not be designated with a artists medium or binder code, but may still be listed under the pigment name with a company code.

+++++In all cases clicking on the art medium/binder code will take you off site to where you can find more information and-or a purchasing source. If you find this site helpful you can help support this site by purchasing through these links. Thanks, and I hope I can continue to make this information available and current. The above links in this key are to the actual manufactures official sites.

©2010 by David Myers, All Rights Reserved. Please email me with corrections, additions or comments.

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Artist Reference Resources:

Natural Pigments, Pigments, Education, The Best source of Natural and Historical Pigments
Dick Blick Artist Supply:
Full Range of art supplies at discount prices
Handprint.com, Guide to Watercolor Pigments, Bruce MacEvoy 2008




The Color of Art Pigment Database Reference of artist paint and dry pigments, pigment powders, and pigment dispersions it is a complete resource on color for acylic, watercolor, oil color, oil paint, alkyds, inks, egg temera, casein and gouache for assisting in the artistic creation of artists. The Color of Art Pigment Database Reference includes Artist's paint Color Index Names and Color Index Chemical Constitution Numbers along with MSDS sheets, light fastness ratings, oil absorption, and other reference information on artist pigments used for painting, crafts, graphic design, decorating, illustration or any medium that uses color in thier art work or craft.

This page of the Color of Art Pigment Database is for CI Pigment Violet, Color Index code PV. is a complete artist's reference, with color Index names and specifications for artist's pigments and paint. The Art is Creation, Color of Art Pigment Database Reference has resources and info for artist paint, student paints, Oilcolor, Oil Paints, Watercolors, Aqueous Pigment Dispersions, Fluid Acylics, Airbrush Paint, Acrylic Gouache, Matte Acrylic Paints, Acrylic Vinyl, Acrylics or Alkyd Oils, Casein or Milk Paint, Encaustic, Gouache, Printing Inks or Pigmented Drawing inks, Oil sticks, Oil Bars, Oil Base Pigment Sticks, Dry Pigments and Powders, Tempera or Egg Tempera, Watercolor Sticks, Watercolor Base Pigment Sticks or Bars, and Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.

© 2010 by David Myers