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The Color of Art: Pigment White, PW
Artist's Paint and Pigments Reference: Color Index Names, Color index Number and Pigment Chemical Composition

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Where applicable, clicking on the artist paint or pigment company code next to the pigments name will take you off site where more information can be found on the artist color. See the Key at the bottom of this page for all the art supply or pigment company codes. The links lead to an art materials supplier, In most cases more specific art medium or paint binder info, pigment properties, pigment history and MSDS sheets. Along with more info, special discounts or sales are often available.
Medium/binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the economy grade, not the "artist's" premium paint. see the Key for art material code.

Jump to CI Pigment White Number:
NW 1,
PW 1, PW 2. PW 3, PW 4, PW 5, PW 6, PW 6:1, PW 7, PW 8, PW 10, PW 11, PW 12, PW 13, PW 14, PW 15, PW 16, PW 17, PW 18, PW 18:1, PW 19, PW 20, PW 21, PW 22, PW 23, PW 24, PW 25, PW 26, PW 27, PW 28, PW 30, PW 32, PW 33,
Bone White; Ceramic White; Diamond Powder; Egg Shells; Hartshorn; Lead Chloride Hydroxide; Lead Phosphite; Lime White; Manganese Carbonate; Oyster Shells
Historic White Pigments without Color Index Names
Historic White Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural White  |  CI Pigment White  | KEYTop ^
Color Index Name Code
CI Pigment Name
Common, Historic and Marketing Names
Chemical Composition
Color Description
†Long Term Effects of Light
Oil Ab.
Oil Absorption
Side Notes
N/A Bone White Bone Ash [KP.p];
Bone White

see Hartshorn
N/A Bone calcined in the presence of oxygen until all organic matter has been burned away. Mostly tribasic phosphate with traces of calcium carbonate and other salts. off white - - - A
Used to prepare paper for silver piont
N/A Ceramic White Ceramic White [HO.o.wo;]
Strontium Titanate;
Strontium Titanate Nano Powder;
N/A Strontium Titanate; Titanic Acid Strontium Bright pure white 1-2** I - A Modern pigment
*Tausonite is a rare natural form found in siberia (Ref).
**Not quite as opaque as Titanium White but more opaque than Zinc White
N/A Diamond Powder Diamond Powder [KP.p] N/A Powdered Diamonds Translucent white 3-4* I - A * depends on binder medium.
N/A Egg Shells Eggshell White [KP.p];
Calx de tistis ovorum;
Shell White
N/A Powdered egg shells; mostly calcium carbonate; Brown eggs contain Ooporphyrin with a small amount of biliverdin with 2-3% eggshell pigment; (Ref) White; light brown*; light blue* 1 I* - A "an incomparable white that can not be surpassed by lead white or any other white in the world if it is made carefully and well" - Secreti di Don Alessio Piemontese (Secrets of Alessio Piemontese), 1557. (Ref);
* Any coloring other than white is probably fugitive
N/A Hartshorn Hart's Horn;
Antler of Hart;
Horn of hind

see Bone White
N/A The horn of the male Europeon red deer Calcined in the presence of oxygen to burn off all organic matter and produce white; Chemically about 80% tribasic phosphate with some calcium carbonate. Other deer horns or bone may also have been used.
see Bone White

"Earthy" White

- - - A
Used for mixing with pigments that can't be mixed with lead white i.e. Orpiment, etc.;
Calcined hartshorn is 'a useful earthy white for watercolors' according to Tingry (1830) . (Ref)
N/A Lead Chloride Hydroxide laurionite;
Lead chloride hydroxide;
Pattinson’s White
77593 Lead chloride hydroxide - - - - C -
N/A Lead Phosphite lead Phosphite 77620 lead phosphite - - - - C Anti-corrosive
N/A Lime White Armenini's White;
Bianco di San Giovanni [NP.p];
Cennini's White;
Lime White;
Saint John's white
N/A Mostly Calcium hydroxide with smaller amounts of Calcium Carbonate bright white 1* I N/A B Excellent white for fresco (Ref);
*transparency can depend on binder
N/A Manganese Carbonate Manganese Carbonate;
Manganese White*?;
77733 Manganous carbonate;
Manganese Carbonate (Ref wikipedia);

Rhodochrosite (MnCO3) is a rare red Manganese Carbonate (wikipedia mineral Reference);

CAS 598-62-9
Pink to almost white powder - - - A
*? The chemical Manganous carbonate (MnCO3), Is said to be "Manganese White" by the Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants, under CI 77733, However Manganous carbonate or Manganese Carbonate usually exists as pale pink to dark to bright red in both it's natural and synthetic forms.(see pictures of Rhodochrosite and Manganese Carbonate at wikipedia);
Magnesium carbonate, (MgCO3), is quite white (see Magnesium carbonate and Magnesite),
"Manganese White" is also a name for Manganese Sulphate
N/A Oyster Shells Shell White;
Gofun Shirayuki [KP.p];
Japanese Pearl White;
Mother of Pearl [KP.p];
N/A Powdered oyster shells; Mostly calcium carbonate in the form of an aragonite (Ref); White may have a iridescence? 3 I - A Has been used in Japan for centuries
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CI Natural White
Historic White Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural White  |  CI Pigment White  | KEYTop ^
Color Index Name Code
CI Pigment Name
Common, Historic and Marketing Names
Chemical Composition
Color Description
†Long Term Effects of Light
Oil Ab.
Oil Absorption
Side Notes
NW1 Guanine C.I. Natural White 1;
Dew Pearl;
Essence d'orient;
Fish Silver [KP.p];
Guanine enol;
Natural Fish Silver;
Natural Pearl Essence;
Natural White 1;
Stella Polaris
75170 Guanin, Iminoxanthin, 2-Amino-6-oxypurin;
Pearl essence extracted from scales of fish, mostly from herring and sardines.;
CAS 73-40-5
Iridescent white to silver to yellow off white 4 - - A Usually used to give iridescence or pearl lustre to other pigments (Ref)
CI Pigment White
Historic White Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural White  |  CI Pigment White  | KEYTop ^
Color Index Name Code
CI Pigment Name
Common, Historic and Marketing Names
Chemical Composition
Color Description
†Long Term Effects of Light
Oil Ab.
Oil Absorption
Side Notes
PW1 Lead White Acrusite*;
Basic Lead Carbonate2;
Basic White Lead2;
Berlin white;
Biacca di Venetia;
Body White;
Ceruse [NP.p];
Ceruse White [NP.p];
Cerussa Native*;
Cerussite* (Natural Lead White)1 [NP.p];
C.I. Pigment White 1;
Clichy White Lead;
Corroded White Lead;
Cremser White;
Cremnitz White [OH.o | WN.o];
Cremnitz White (Linseed Oil) [MH.o];
Cremnitz White (Walnut Oil) [MH.o];
Dutch White Lead;
Flake White [BX.o | BR | KA.o.p | KP.p | MA.p | NP.p3 | RGH.o.p | SE | UT.o | WL.o | WN];
Flake White + Powdered Glass [RGH.o];
Flake White Extra Fine [RGH.o];
Flemish White [UT.o];
Foundation White;
Genoa White;
Hamburg White;
Holland white;
Krems White;
Kremser White;
Kremniz White;
Kremnitz White;
Lead Salt;
Lead Spar
Lead Subcarbonate;
Lead White [NP.p];
Lead White #2 [NP.p];
London White;
Minium Album;
Nottingham White;
Neutral Lead Carbonate;
Pigment White 1;
Plumbous Carbonate;
Roman White;
Silver White [HO.o];
Slate White;
Stack Process White Lead [NP.p];
Stack Process White Lead (Dutch Method) [NP.p];
Slate White;
Snowflake White;
Synthetic Hydrocerussite;
Venetian Ceruse;
Venetian White [NP.p];
Vienna White;
White lead2
77597 White Lead (Ref wikipedia);
Stack Process Lead White (Ref Natural Pignents);
Lead Carbonate2 (Ref wikipedia);
Basic Lead Carbonate (Ref);
Lead Carbonate Hydroxide;
Lead(II) Carbonate Basic;
Lead Hydroxide Carbonate (Ref);
Lead(2+) dicarbonate dihydroxide;

"Lead carbonate is one of the compounds which can be named lead white. It is the synthetic analogue of the mineral cerussite", "Lead white usually refers to Lead Carbonate Hydroxide (Basic Lead Carbonate, Lead(II) carbonate basic) or the natural form Hydrocerussite.
In addition ‘lead white’ may be extended to describe the lead chloride oxides, lead phosphates and particularly the lead sulfates" (Ref Pigment Compendium p.228, p.239)

Cerussite1 and Hydrocerussite are the natural mineral forms and may have some impurities. (Ref wikipedia); (Ref galleries.com); (Ref google images); (Ref webmineral.com);
Hydrocerussite (Ref mindat.org, and pic gallery); (Ref webmineral.com, Nice Pic here); (Ref pdf from handbook of mineralogy.org); (Ref pics at wikimedia.org);

Making pigments: lead white at webexhibits.org

In tests using spectroscopic analysis some brands of Lead White indicated as genuine or pure PW 1 are in fact be adulterated by Lead(II) sulfate, calcium carbonate, gypsum or chalk (Reference: A Critical Analysis of Commercial Pigments, by M. Pérez, K. Castro, M.D. Rodríguez2, MA. Olazabal and J.M. Madariaga, University of the Basque Country, Dept. Analytical Chemistry and Dept. Painting).

CAS 598-63-0;

CAS 1319-47-7

Lead Carbonate2:
CAS 598-63-0;

Basic Lead Carbonate:
CAS 37361-76-5?

Lead Carbonate Hydroxide (Basic Lead Carbonate. Lead(II) Carbonate Basic):
CAS 1319-46-6
Silvery white

† Darkens, may be due to atmospheric sulfides
1-2 I 10-15 C
May be slightly yellowish or off-white in oil paints due to binder.;

May darken if exposed to sulfur fumes.;

More stable in oil paints, the oil protecting it from exposer to the atmospere.;

Historical names referred to specific method or place of manufacture. Today these names are mostly just marketing terms although some pigment suppliers have genuine Ceruse, and Flake white (dutch process) still available in small batches, most notably Natural Pigments.

* Acrusite, Cerussite1, Hydrocerussite are natural minerals.

Often adulterated with Blanc Fix as an extender and/ or to improve consistency (Ref THE ARTIST’S HANDBOOK by Pip Seymour)
PW2 Lead Sulphate White Bartlett White Lead;
C.I. Pigment White 2;
Sublimed White Lead;
Flemish White;
Freeman's Lead;
Freeman's White;
Non-poisonous White Lead*;
Patent White Lead;
Pigment White 2;
Purex White;
Lead Bottoms;
Lead Sulfate [NP.p];
Lewis White Lead;
Silver Lead;;
White Lead;
White Lead Sulfate
77633 Tetrabasic Lead Sulfate (Ref Natural Pigments Blog);
Basic Lead Sulphate plus Zinc Oxide;
Lead oxide sulphates;

CAS 7446-14-2
Grayish to White 2 I 10-22 C* Some common names, chemical data, and pigment info is confusing or conflicting and seem to refer to PW2 and PW3 interchangeably.

* Although less soluble than Basic Lead Carbonate (PW1), "Non-poisonous White Lead" (Tetrabasic Lead Sulfate PW2) is a toxic cumulative poison if ingested over a long period of time.
PW3 Basic Lead Sulphate White Anglesite;
Basic Lead Sulphate;
C.I. Pigment White 3;
Fast White;
Flemish White;
Freeman White;
Freeman's White Lead;
Lead Bottoms;
Lead Dross;
Lead Sulfate;
Lead Sulphate;
Lead Vitriol;
Milk White;
Mulhaus White;
Mulhouse White;
Mulhouse White Lead;
Natural Anglesite;
Pigment White 3;
Sulfate de plomb;
Sulfate White Lead;
Sulfuric Acid Lead Salt;
White Lead

Lead Sulphate;
Natural Mineral Anglesite (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008), (Ref Mineral at webmineral.com);
lead salt of sulfuric acid;
Lead(II) Sulphate; (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008), (Ref Boston Fine Arts);
(Ref Natural Pigments Blog);

CAS: 7446-14-2

Grayish to White 2 I 10-22 C -
PW4 Zinc Oxide White Blanc de Zinc [LB.o];
Chinese White [AS | DS.w | LK | MA.w.w | RT.w | WN.w.w];
C.I. Pigment White 4;
French White;
Hubbocks White;
Mixing White [WN.a];
Neo-Zinc White [HO];
Permanent Chinese White [MR.o | SCH.w];
Permanent White;
Pigment White 4;
Sinopia Zinc White, transparent [SI.p];
Silver White;
Snow Flowers;
Snow White;
Tint White [SE.a];
Transparent Mixing White [LQ.a];
Transparent Mixing White (Zinc White) [LQ.a];
Zinc Buff Yellowish* [WL.o.p];
Zinc Flowers;
Zinc Oxide [GEN | KA | NP.p];
Zinc Mixing White [TA.a];
Zinc White [GEN | BX.o.w | CAS.k | CH | DR | DS.a.o.p | DV.k.o | GB.o | GO.a | GR.o.o.wo | GU | HO.o | KA..o.p | KP.p | LB.o | LK | MA.a.g.o.o(artis).p | MG.a.g.o | MH.o | MR.o | MW.o | OH.a.o | PF.o | RGH.o.p | RT.o | SCH.a.g.o, SCHM.o | SE.t | SV | UT.o | WL.o.p | WN.o.w];
Zinc White Oxide [GB.p];
Zink White [SCH]
77947 Inorganic;
Zinc Oxide;

Making pigments: How to make Zinc White at webexhibits.org;

CAS 1314-13-2,
CAS 91315-44-5

Translucent white;

*Zinc Buff Yellowish light pale yellow

† Lightens slightly, becomes brittle

2 I 10-22 A

Often Titanium White is mixed with Zinc White in artist's oil paints. Titanium White is said to be soft and "spongy" and Zinc White is said to be hard and "brittle". Together they supposedly cancel out each others cons.;

New studies suggest zinc white may lead to premature cracking in oil colors (Ref),
The studies may or may not pertain to mixtures with Titanium White in artist paints.

PW5 Lithopone Albanol;
Beckton White;
Blanc de Titane [LB.o];
Cariton white;
Charlton white;
C.I. Pigment White 5;
Diamond White;
English White;
Graves White;
Griffith's White;
Griffith's Patent Zinc White;
Jersey Lily White;
Knight's White;
Lithopone [GEN | KA.p | KP.p | SCH];
Lithopone Silver;
Lithopone White [SE];
Marbon White;
Mixing White [SCH];
Navin's White;
Oleum white;
Opaque White [LK];
Orr's White;
Orr's Zinc White;
Pigment White 5;
Ross' white;
Snow White;
Structure White;
Sulphogen White;
Transparent White [LA.a];
White smalt;
Zinc Baryta White;
Zinc Mixing White [DR];
Zinc White [DR | HO.a | WN.g]

"an insoluble mixture of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide that precipitates upon mixing solutions of barium sulfide and zinc sulfate. The precipitate is recovered by filtration, then calcined" (britannica.com Ref);
"Complex co-precipitate, but not a compound, of calcium sulfate and zinc sulfide" (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77115);

Barium sulfate (28 - 30%) and zinc sulfide (68 - 70%) with trace amounts of zinc oxide;

CAS 1345-05-7

White 1-2 I 14 A Sometimes used as a base for Lake pigments.;

Added to artist, and so-called "designer" or "Illustrator" gouache paints to make a pigment more opaque and to lighten the hue, this is often not indicated on the art supply manufacturer's labels.;

Often used as a extender in cheap white paints.;

Used as a white pigment or adulterant in artist paints, student grade paints and many light colored artist convenience mixes especially in economy priced paints.
PW6 Titanium White Aeroweiss DS [SCH];
Antique White [HO.w];
Buff Titanium [CAS.k | DB.o];
China white [PF.w];
Chinese White [HO.ag.w | MG.w];
Chalk White;
C.I. Pigment White 6;
Fast Drying Titanium White [CR.o];
Flake White Hue [DV.k];
Heavy Body White [SCH.a];
Inorganic Oxide White;
Kronos Titanium Dioxide;
Mixing White [WN.a];
Inorganic Synthetic Opaque White;
Opaque White [LK | SCH];
Permanent White [HO.g.wo | UT.w | WN.g];
Permanent White EX [HO.o];
Permanent White SF [HO.o];
Pigment White 6;
Primary White [HO.g];
Quick-Dry White [HO.o];
Quick Drying White [HO.o];
Radiant White [GB.o];
Sinopia Titanium White Rutile [SI.p];
Super White [MA.o(artis)];
Tinting White [CR.a.o];
Titanium Buff [GO.a | GU];
Titanium Dioxide [NP.p];
Titanium Dioxide White;
Titanium Opaque White [SCH.w];
Titanium White* [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | CAS.k | CH | CL | CR.a.o | DB.a | DR | DS.a.o.p.w | DV.af.k.w | EP.p | GO.a | GU | HO.a.ag.o.w.wo | JO.ag | KA.ad.o.p | LA.a | LB.o | LK | LQ.a | MA.a.a.o.p | MG.a.w | MR.o | MT | OH.a.o | PF.o.o.w | RGH.o.p | RT.a.a.wo | SCH.a.g | SE.a.t | SQ.a | TA.a | UT.a | WL.o.p | WN.a.a.k.w];
Titanium White Dioxide [GB.p];
Titanium White Extra Opaque [OH.a];
Titanium White No. 1 [MH.o];
Titanium White No. 3 (with driers) [MH.o];
Titanium White (opaque) [HO];
Titanium White (Opaque White) [WN];
Titanium White Rutile [KP.p];
Translucent White [SCH.o];
Transparent Titanium White [RT.w];
Unbleached Titanium [RGH.o.p | SQ.a | TA.a | WL.o.p];
Warm White [SQ.a | TA.a];
White [AS | DR | HO | LA.a | MA | SE];
White Permanent [MW.wo];
White (Titanium) [DV];
XSL Titanium White;
Zinc White Imitation [PF.o];
77891 Inorganic;
Titanium Dioxide (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);
** Anatase (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

Titanium (IV) Oxide Anatase;
Titanium (IV) Oxide Rutile;
Titanium (IV) Oxide Brookite

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;
Inorganic Oxide White;
Titanium Dioxide White;
Titanium White (i);
Titanium White (ii);

Making pigments: Titanium White at webexhibits.org;

CAS 13463-67-7
Purest White 1 I 18-30 A
* Often Titanium White is mixed with Zinc White in artist's oil paints. Titanium White is said to be soft and "spongy" and Zinc White is said to be hard and "brittle". Together they supposedly cancel out each others cons. This Pigment Database only has artist paints or pigments that are single pigment and not mixed.

The term Titanium White has been used for almost any white pigment containing titanium, according to M. Laver in her chapter on Titanium White, in the book Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of Their History & Characteristics, Vol 3, 1997.
Some other pigments associated with the name Titanium White are Barium titanate, Lead Titanate, Potassium Titanate, Titanated lithopone, Titanium lithopone, Titanium phthalate, Titanium silicate and Zinc titanate.
PW6:1 Titanium White Buff Buff Titanium [DR | DS.a.o.p.w | KP.p];
Buff Titanium Gray [CAS.k];
Buff Titanium Light [CAS.k];
Buff Titanium, natural titanium dioxide [KP.p];
Buff Titanium Oxide;
Chinese White [GR.w];
C.I. Pigment White 6:1;
Hitox Buff Titanium Oxide;
Natural Titanium;
Natural Titanium Dioxide;
Pigment White 6:1;
Titan Buff [GO.a];
Titanium Buff [SI.p];
Titanium White [DB.w | GR.a.w];
Titanium White Buff;
Unbleached Titanium [WL.o];
Unbleached Titanium Dioxide [MH.o];
Unbleached Titanium Pale [WL.o]
77891 Inorganic; Natural Titanium, Titanium Dioxide and Ferric Oxide bound together with other metallic oxides;

CAS 13463-67-7
Off White 1 I 33-35 A -
PW7 Zinc Sulphide White Chinese White;
C.I. Pigment White 7;
Opaque White [SCH.o];
Pigment White 7;
Zinc blende;
Zinc Buff [WL.o];
Zinc sulfide [KP.p];
Zinc Sulphide White;
Zinc White[RT.a.a | WL.o];
Zinc Sulphide White;

CAS 1314-98-3
White to yellowish 1-2* I 11-13 A** Phospherescent and electroluminescent properties, often used to make fluorescent and glow-in-the-dark paints;

"It is often used for "invisible ink" that glows with exposure to ultraviolet light."-dick blick site reference;

*Transparency increases the smaller the particles;

**may have traces of lead
PW8 Strontium sulfide C.I. Pigment White 8;
Strontium Sulfide
77847 Strontium sulfide;
Strontium sulfide is fluorescent and phosphorescent. The initial brightness of strontium sulfide type phosphors is lower than that of the zinc sulfide type, and the duration of afterglow is longer.
phosphorescent - - - - -
PW10 Barium Carbonate Barium Carbonate;
Barium Monocarbonate;
Barium Salt;
Carbonic Acid;
C.I. Pigment White 10;
Cocks Comb Spar;
Durex White
Pigment White 10;
Ponderous Spar;
77099 Barium Carbonate, A heavy white powder that occurs in nature as the mineral witherite (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

CAS 513-77-9
White powder 3 - 15-25 D*
*used as rat poison, forms barium chloride in the presence of stomach acid
PW11 Antimony White Algarotti White;
Antimonious Oxide;
Antimony(III) Oxide;
Antimony Bloom;
Antimony Oxide;
Antimony Peroxide;
Antimony Sesquioxide;
Antimony Trioxide;
Antimony White;
C.I. Pigment White 11;
Flowers of Antimony;
Pigment White 11;
Valentinite (natural mineral);
White Antimony;
White Star Timonox;
77052 Antimony(III) oxide;
Antimony Oxide;
Antimony Peroxide;
Antimony Sesquioxide;
Antimony Trioxide (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);
Antimony White (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

CAS 1309-64-4
Powder white 1 I 8-12 C
May be darkened by hydrogen sulfide
PW12 Zirconium Oxide Baddeleyite;
C.I. Pigment White 12;
Zircon White;
Zirconium Oxide
77990 Zirconium Oxide

Baddeleyite is the natural mineral. (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008),
- - - - - -
PW13 Barium Tungstate Barium Tungstate;
Barium White;
Barium wolframate;
C.I. Pigment White 13;
Pigment White 13;
Tungstate of Baryta;
Tungstate White;
Tungsten white;
Wolfram white
77128 Barium Tungstate;

CAS 7787-42-0
White - I - C -
PW14 Bismuth Oxychloride Bismuth White;
Biluna Bismuth Oxy;
Blanc d'Espagne;
Blanc de Perle;
Chloride Crystals;
C.I. Pigment White 14;
Liquid Mirror [TA.a];
Magistery of Bismuth;
Pigment White 14
77163 Bismuth Chloride Oxide; Bismuth Oxychloride;

CAS 7787-59-9
Silvery white with pearlescent or iridescence properties - - L A* Often used in cosmetics to produce pearlescent shine; Often used to add metallic or pearlescent properties to paints.;
*Can cause allergies and other claimed skin problems when used as cosmetic
PW15 Tin Oxide Cassiterite;
C.I. Pigment White 15;
Flowers of Tin;
Pigment White 15;
Stannic Anhydride;
Stannic Oxide;
Stannous Oxide;
Tin Dioxide;
Tin Oxide;
White Tin Oxide
77861 Tin(IV) Oxide;
Tin Monoxide;
Tin III Oxide;
Tin Dioxide;
Tin Oxide;
Ttin Peroxide (Chemical references)
Cassiterite (natural tin oxide ore) -mindat.org (Ref);

CAS 18282-10-5]
white to gray with slight pearlescent sheen 1 I - A*
Used to give subtle pearlescent properties to artist paints and pigments;

Used in ceramic glazes;

Used as a polishing agent for glass and metals;

* Respiratory irritant, wear a mask when working with dry pigment.
PW16 Lead Silicate Alamosite;
Basic Lead Silicate;
Basic Silicate White Lead;
C.I. Pigment White 16;
Lead Bisilicate;
Lead Frits;
Lead Metasilicate;
Lead Monosilicate;
Lead Silicate;
Lead White
Pigment White 16
77625 Alamosite is the natural mineral (Ref); Fused Silica sand and Litharge (Ref);

CAS 10099-76-0
White 1 - L C -
PW17 Bismuth Subnitrate Bismuth Nitrate;
Bismuth Subnitrate;
Bismuth Subnitricum;
Bismuth White [KP.p];
Bismuthyl Nitrate;
Bismuth Oxynitrate;
Bismuth Yellow;
Blanc de fard;
Bougival White;
C.I. Pigment White 17;
Magistery of Bismuth;
Paint White;
Pearl White;
Pearl White Bismuth Nitrate Oxide [KP.p];
Pigment White 17;
Spanish White;
Subnitrate of Bismuth

Basic Bismuth Nitrate;
Bismuth hydroxide nitrate oxide;

CAS 10361- 44-1;
CAS 54392-33-5

Pearlescent white; Microcrystaline powder 1 II L A* May be darkened by hydrogen sulfide, May yellow (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77169);
Was formely used as an antiacid and wound dressing (Ref).
*Can cause allergies and other claimed skin problems when used as cosmetic
PW18 Chalk Aragonite [KP.p];
Alba Albula [KP.p];
Alabaster White;
Bianco Carrara White Marble Dust [NP.p];
Bianco di Sangiovanni;
Bianco san Giovanni;
Biancho Secco;
Bianco Verona White Marble Dust [NP.p];
Bologna Chalk [NP.p];
Calcite [NP.p];
Calcite White [KP.p];
Calcium Carbonate;
Carrara marmor dust [KP.p];
Carrara Marble, White [KP.p];
Chalk [GEN | NP.p];
Chalk from Bologna [KP.p];
Chalk from Champagne [KP.p];
Chalk from Ruegen [KP.p];
C.I. Pigment White 18;
Coarse calcium carbonate chalk [KA];
Colourless [RT];
English White;
Extra-fine calcium carbonate chalk [KA];
Gilders Gesso;
Gilders Whiting;
Grey Chalk from Sarti [SI.p];
Lime White;
Marble Dust [GEN | DS.p | EP.p | KP.p | SI.p | UT];
Marble Dust Italian [KP.p];
Marble Flour [EP.p];
Marble Flour Extra Fine [EP.p];
Marble Meal [EP.p];
Paris White;
PCD French Chalk [SI.p];
Pigment White 18;
Powdered Marble [SCH];
Saint John’s White;
Sarti Chalk Greyish [KP.p];
Stone Chalk [KP.p];
Tailor's Chalk;
Troy White;
Troyes White;
Veroneser White [KP.p];
Veronese White Marble[KP.p];
White Chalk [KP.p];
White Earth from Carrara [MA.o];
Whiting [GEN | GB.o.p | SI.p];
Whiting Chalk [EP.p];
Yellow Chalk from Sarti [SI.p]
77220 +
Inorganic; Natural Calcium carbonate with Magnesium carbonate as an impurity;

Making pigments: lime white at webexhibits.org

CAS 471-34-1
White to cream/blue/gray off white 1-4* I 15-20 A
Can be affected by acids;

Used to neutralize acids in artist papers and painting conservation;

Generally used as extender, thickener, matting agent in artist paints and to add tooth to oil paint and acrylic gesso and primers;

Added to watercolors to make Gouache in artist, designer and illustrator paints.
Used to make watercolor gouache paints matte and more opaque, but usually not indicated on the art suppliers literature;

Promotes thru drying and other claimed benefits to an oil paint film,
see Calsite Sun Oil and Chalk Putty . More info on Calsite mediums from NP. ;

Added to lead white to make the soft tranlucent mixing white Ceruse (Ref);

Marble (chalk) in solid form is used for sculpture, pottery, architecture and many other arts.

* Opaque in water media, but nearly transparent in oil Binder.;
PW18 Precipitated Chalk Calcium Carbonate [KP.p];
Calcium Carbonate Coarse [KA.p];
Calcium Carbonate CP;
Calcium Carbonate Extra fine [KA.p];
Calcium Carbonate (precipitated chalk) [GU];
Calcium carbonate (USP);
Calcium monocarbonate;
Calcium trioxidocarbonate;
C.I. Pigment White 18;
Pigment White 18;
Levigated chalk;
Precipitated Chalk (DS.p)

Also all the names above for natural chalk are often used.
77220 Pure Calcium Carbonate;

CAS 471-34-1
White 1-4* I 55 A
See above for artist uses.
PW18:1 Dolomite Ankerite;
C.I. Pigment White 18:1;
Dolomite [KP.p];
Dolomitic Limestone;
Egyptian Dolomite;
Pearl Spar;
Pigment White 18:1;
Spanish White [KP.p];
Sugar Dolomite [KP.p];
77220:1 +
Natural Calcium carbonate with Magnesium carbonate;
Mineral (Ref); (Ref); (Ref);
As pigment (Ref);

Making pigments: lime white at webexhibits.org

CAS 7000-29-5;
CAS 546-93-0
White to pale pink to yellowish white 1-4* I 12 –14 A
* Nearly transparent extender in oils
PW19 Kaolin

Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide;
Bentonite [KP.p];
Bolus Alba;
Brick Dust;
China Clay [DS.p; KP.p];
China clay, kaolin [KA];
C.I. Pigment White 19;
Devonshire Clay;
English Caolin;
Hydrated Aluminium Silicate
Kaolin [GU];
Natural White Earth [KP.p];
Organoclay [NP.p];
Paper Clay;
Pipe Clay;
Pigment White 19;
Porcelain Clay;
Supreme White;
Vicenza Earth [NP.p];
White Bole;
White Bolus;
White Heart;
White Kaolinite [NP.p];

White Clay Rock, mostly natural hydrated Aluminium Silicate with Impurities of Magnesium, Iron carbonates, Ferric hydroxide, Mica, Quartz-sand, etc. (Ref Colorindex 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77004)
Kaolin (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

*** Organoclay is a derivative of a bentonite.

CAS 8047-76-5
Bright White; can have blue, green, red, orange or brown undertones* 1-4** I 26 - 55*** A
* Calcined Kaolin produces whiter shades.;

** Opacity depends on manufacture, binder and other mineral properties.;

*** Oil absorption varies some by manufacture method & particle size. Purity and other natural mineral properties may have some effects.

see inert pigments
PW20 Mica Biotite;
C.I. Pigment White 20;
Fine Mica [GU];
Gold Coarse Mica [GU];
Glimmer White;
Interference Blue [OH.a?*];
Interference Green [OH.a?*];
Interference Lilac [OH.a?*];
Interference Red [OH.a?*];
Iridescent Pearl White [WL.o];
Metallic White [HO.ag];
Mica [GEN];
Mica Powder [SI.p];
Mica Titanate;
Mica White [KP.p];
Mother Of Pearl [TA.a];
Muscovite Mica [KP.p];
Muscovite Mica, brilliant[KP.p];
Muscovy Glass;
Natural Mica, Perlescent Powder [KA.p];
Pearl Blue [HO.a];
Pearl Lustre;
Pearl White [HO.a.g];
Pearlescent White;
Pink Mica [GU];
Pigment White 20;
Silver [HO.w];
Super Sparkle White Mica Powder [EP.p];
Titanated Mica;
White Coarse Mica [GU];
White Fine Mica [GU];
White Medium Mica [GU];
White Muscovite;

Also many colors with Iridescent, Pearl, or Metallic prefix or suffix.
77019 Inorganic;
Hydrous Aluminium Potassium Silicate;
Mica Titanate (micronised mica flakes);

"a type of natural quartz, which occurs in the form of compressed thin sheets or plates that divide easily" (Ref THE ARTIST’S HANDBOOK by Pip Seymour);

CAS 12001-26-2
Translucent pearlescent or shimmering off-white 4 I 45-50 A Adds metallic, iridescent and pearlescent properties to paints.;

Natural Mica and larger particles may harm oil paint film, very fine particles and micronised Mica Titanate is more suitable for oil (Ref).

?* may have small amount of other pigment added for tint.
PW21 Barium Sulfate
Artificial Barite;
Barite [NP.p];
Barium Sulfate [KA];
Barium White;
Baryta White;
Blanc Fixe [KP.p | SCH];
C.I. Pigment White 21;
Constant White;
Italian Gesso [NP.p];
Pigment White 21;
Pigment White 22 (natural);
Precipitated Barium Sulphate;
Sulfate de Baryum;
Sulfato de Bario;
Synthetic Barium Sulfate;
Tyrol White
77120 Inorganic;
Synthetic Barium Sulfate (Ref);

Natural Barium Sulfate Ore (Pigment White 22) (Ref);

Barium Sulfate (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

CAS 7727-43-7
White 2-3* I 15-25 A**

*Used as an filler, extender, to improve handling, increase opacity (in watercolor and gouache), and/or adulterant in oil colors.;

Barium Sulfate or Blanc Fix is very heavy and when used in paints may make the tube feel heavy. Because of that it is often used to adulterate Lead White, or added to paints as a adulterant filler simulating a high pigment load (Ref THE ARTIST’S HANDBOOK by Pip Seymour);

Used as a base for more opaque lake pigments;

** Pure Barium Sulfate is not soluble so it is safe, but poorly made synthetic Barium Sulfate may have free soluble barium compounds as impurities that are very poisonous (Ref). I Recommend only getting from a reliable source.

see inert pigments

PW22 Barytes
(Natural Barium Sulfate)
Barite [NP.p];
Baryta White;
Bologna Stone;
Bolognian Spar;
Bologna white;
C.I. Pigment White 22;
Heavy Spar;
Mineral White;
Natural Barium Sulfate;
Pigment White 21;
Pigment White 22;
Ponderous Spar;
Sulfate de Baryum;
Sulfato de Bario;
Tyrol white

Also see Pigment White 21 above
77120 Inorganic;
Natural Barium Sulfate (Ref);

Barite (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

CAS 7727-43-7
White to off white 2-3* I 11 A** Used as an filler, extender, to improve handling, increase opacity (in watercolor and gouache), and/or adulterant in oil colors. Also used as a base for more opaque lake pigments;

Barium Sulfate or Blanc Fix is very heavy and when used in paints may make the tube feel heavy. Because of that it is often used to adulterate Lead White, or added to paints as a adulterant filler simulating a high pigment load (Ref THE ARTIST’S HANDBOOK by Pip Seymour);

** Barium Sulfate is not soluble so it is safe, but poorly made Barium Sulfate, or raw natural Barium Sulfate may have impurities or free soluble barium compounds that are very poisonous (Ref)
PW23 Alumina Blanc Fixe Alum;
Alumina Blanc Fixe;
Aluminium Hydrate;
C.I. Pigment White 23;
Gloss White;
Pigment White 23
77122 Aluminum hydrate, Barium sulfate;
Coprecipitate of about. 25% aluminium hydroxide and 75% barium sulfate (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants, chemical constitution number CI 77122)

used as “clear oil colour” (Ref Color Index Third Ed)
White Crystalline Powder - I - A**
** Barium Sulfate is not soluble so it is safe, but poorly made Barium Sulfate may have free soluble barium compounds that are very poisonous (Ref)
PW24 Aluminium Hydroxide Alumina;
Alumina Hydrate [KA.p];
Alumina Trihydrate;
Aluminum Hydrate;
Aluminum Hydrate White;
Aluminum Hydroxide1;
Aluminum Hydroxide Fine [KP.p];
Aluminum Hydroxide Medium [KP.p];
Aluminum Oxide Trihydrate;
Aluminum Trihydrate [NP.p];
Aluminum White;
C.I. Pigment White 24;
Gloss White;
Hydrated Alumina;
Hydrated Aluminum Oxide;
Transparent Blender [DS.o];
Transparent White;
Alumina White;
Pigment White 24
77002 Aluminum Hydroxide can have varying amounts of basic aluminium sulfate (Ref Colorindex 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77002);
Alumina Trihydrate
(Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);
Aluminum hydroxide, is a metallic salt and soap of aluminum.

CAS 21645-51-2
Translucent White powder* 3-4** I 33-55*** A
*see inert pigments

**Transparent in oils

*** Oil absorption depends on particle size

One of the most common metalic bases for precipitating dyes to make lake pigments (Ref).

Often used as a filler, extender and adulterant to increase volume of a paint or pigment. Used this way it lowers the tinting strength of the mixed pigment. In the case of very strong colors like the Phthalo's it is not considered an adulterant, it is also added in small amounts to improve paint handling.
Very often it is used to greatly extend pigments in cheaper paints and pigments where it is considered an adulterant. Overuse may cause some yellowing and darkening in oil paints. (Ref The Artist's Handbook by Pip Seymour); (Ref The Artist's Handbook by Ralph Mayer)

PW24 Gibbsite Aluminum Hydroxide;
C.I. Pigment White 24;
Natural Aluminum Hydroxide;
Pigment White 24
- Natural Aluminum Hydroxide with varying amounts of basic aluminium sulfate

CAS 21645-51-2
Brown tinted Translucent Flakes 4 I 33 A Can be used the same as Aluminum Hydroxide, but may could have impurites and be more opaque or off color in artist paints.
PW25 Gypsum Anhydrous sulfate of lime**;
Alabastar [NP.p];
Alabaster Gypsum;
Alabaster White [KP.p];
Atlas Spar;
Bologna White;
C.I. Pigment White 25;
Crown Filler;
Lady's Ice;
Light Spar;
Mineral White;
Magnesia White?;
Native Calcium Sulfate;
Natural Gypsum;
Natural Calcium Sulfate;
Natural Sulfate of Lime;
Pigment White 25;
Plaster of Paris**;
Precipitated Calcium Sulfate;
Puritan Filler;
Satin Spar;
Silk Spar;
Specular Stone;
Sulfate of Lime;
Terra Alba [DS.p; KP.p | NP.p];
77231 Inorganic;
Hydrated calcium sulfate (Ref); (Gypsum Ref at Boston Fine Arts); (Alabaster Ref at Boston Fine Arts);

CAS 91315-45-6
CAS 10101-14-4

** Anhydrous form of calcium sulfate or calcined gypsum
White 1-3* I 18-22 A *Nearly transparent in oils used as an extender, filler and/or adulterant;

Used in traditional artists gesso.;

May make brittle gesso? (Ref);

High quality pure Calcium Sulfate Terra Alba available from Natural Pigments.
Alabaster Natural Hydrated Cacium Sulfate also from Natural Pigments
PW26 Talc Agalite;
Alberene® Soapstone;
C.I. Pigment White 26;
French Chalk [DS.p};
Lard Stone;
Pigment White 26;
Pot Stone;
Spanish Chalk;
Tailors Chalk;
Talc [GU | KA.p];
Talcum [SCH];
Talcum Powder [SI.p];
Talcum White [KP.p];
77718 +
Mixed Hydrated Silicate of Magnesium with varying impurites of Calcium, Iron and other compounds;
Hydrated Magnesium Silicate (Ref Boston Fine Arts);

CAS 14807-96-6
CAS 8005-37-6
Slightly off white to light grey 1-3* I 30 - 45 A
*Nearly transparent in oils used as an extender, filler and to change rheological properties of paints
PW27 Silica C.I. Pigment White 27;
Cristobalite Powder [KP.p];
Diatomaceous Earth [GU];
Diatomaceous Silica;
Diatomic Earth;
Fossil Flower;
Fuller's Earth;
Infusorial Earth;
Mountain Crystal [KP.p];
Pigment White 27;
Precipitated amorphous silica;
Rock Crystal [KP.p];
Silicon Dioxide;
Quartz Powder [KP.p];
77811 Inorganic;
Two types:
Hydrous = diatomaceous earth;
Anhydrous = silica
(Ref Color Index Third Ed);

Silicon Dioxide (amorphous) or anhydrous silica is pure chemical form;

Natural Diatomaceous Earth is the Hydrous form made up of the fossilized skeletal remains of aquatic plants called diatoms (Ref);

CAS 7631-86-9
White to off white 1-4* I L A Used mostly to add tooth or texture; *Transparency depends on binder and partical size, also the crystaline structure.
PW28 Calcium Silicate Anhydrite;
Calcium Silicate;
Calcium Metasilicate;
C.I. Pigment White 28;
Baysical K;
Pigment White 28;
Wollastonite (mineral)
77230 Inorganic;
Calcium Metasilicate;
Calcium Silicate;

CAS 10101-39-0;
CAS 10101-41-4;
CAS 13397-24-5;
CAS 26499-65-0;
CAS 7778-18-9
White to light cream 2-3* I M A *Depends on binder and partical size
PW28 Hydrated Calcium Silicate C.I. Pigment White 28;
Hydrated Calcium Silicate;
Pigment White 28;
77230 Inorganic;
Hydrated Calcium Silicate
Bright White 4 I H A -
PW 30 Lead Phosphate C.I. Pigment White 30;
Lead Phosphate;
Pigment White 30
77622 Lead Phosphate - - - - C -
PW32 Zinc Phosphate C.I. Pigment White 32;
Delta Zinc Phosphate;
Pigment White 32;
Zinkphosphate ZP 10
77964 Inorganic;
Pure Zinc Phosphate;

CAS 7779-90-0
White 1 I - A -
PW33 Calcium sulfoaluminate C.I. Pigment White 33;
Calcium sulfoaluminate;
Pigment White 33;
7 7235 Calcium sulfoaluminate            

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Jump to: Manufacturer Codes  |  Binder/Medium Codes

Color Index Name Code:
This is the official code given by the Color Index International for that particular pigment. The first 2 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. N/A (not applicable) means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number.

PY = Pigment Yellow;
PO = Pigment Orange;
PR = Pigment Red;
PV = Pigment Violet;
PB = Pigment Blue;
PG = Pigment Green;
PBr = Pigment Brown;
PBk = Pigment Black;
PW = Pigment White;
PM = Pigment Metal

CI (Color Index) Pigment Name:
This is the official name given in the Color Index (third edition, 1997), or the name the first manufacturer or original patent holder has given that pigment, in a few instances where neither of the previous are available, I have used the actual chemical name. Where a pigment has no color index name, I have used the traditional historic name or the mineral/chemical names.

Common, Historic and Marketing Names:
These are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any name but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used. They have been culled (in order of importance) from paint manufacturer and supplier literature, The Color Index, Third edition (1997), Historical Books on pigments and art (see Free Art e-Books), Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works), various dictionaries and encyclopedias (old and new), and various web sites in particular AMIEN.org, Dick Blick Artist Supply, Handprint.com, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments, PCImag.com and Kremer Pigments, along with the paint, chemical and pigment manufacture sites.
Marketing names given by paint manufacturers are often misleading, deceptive or descriptive of the color and not the actual pigment. Where there is a common historic name associated with that pigment I have used "GEN" to denote the generic common historically accepted name of that particular pigment. When a manufacturer has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name, I have indicated it with the "(hue)" designation.

C.I. (Color Index) Pigment # (number):
These are the chemical composition number given that pigment by the Color Index International (see Colour Index Number Categories here)

Chemical Composition:
These are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. Where I can fine them, I have included CAS numbers. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways or the pigment is a group of chemicals rather than a single one. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses but only basic information that should help you find further information. I have included references designated with "(Ref)" where further information can be attained.

Color Description:
This is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain english. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. I have not in all cases used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this, but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes (The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition), I have used that description, when not, I have used other reference sources in particularly manufacturer or supplier literature.

Opacity- Transparency*: 
The opacity and transparency is only a general reference, where available, i have used the Color index's designation or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. Many pigments exist in both transparent and opaque versions, or can be manipulated by the paint or pigment manufactures for a particular purpose. A general designation such as given will not always be the case in any particular formulation.

1 = Opaque,
2 = Semi-Opaque,
3 = Semi-Transparent,
4 = Transparent

Light Fastness Rating**:
The light fastness rating is only a general reference, where available i have used the ASTM or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. The ASTM has not rated all pigments, so this rating in this database will not always be the ASTM rating but a rating culled from other sources, most importantly manufactures literature. The ASTM ratings (ASTM D4303 -10, ASTM D5383 - 02) have a 5 increment scale and the blue-wool scale (ISO 105, ISO 12040 standards used by most pigment and dye manufacturers) is 8, in this database lighfastness ratings have been condensed or averaged to a less specific 4 designations. I can can not cover every possible paint, binder, or pigment formulation in this chart as it would take too much time and space; there are so many variables as to make this designation, in this database, of only marginal use. In particular the quality of the actual pigment manufacture has much influence on a pigments fastness to light, heat and other chemicals. Additives, binder, and many other factors all have a influence on light fastness or fastness to other environmental influences. Whether a paint is watercolor, oil color, tempera, etc. has an effect on light fastness. Varnishes and other treatments to the painting surface or support can have an influence too. The only way to be sure, is to make your own tests on the paint or pigment you have. Reference the following:
(ASTM D4303 - 10 opens new window); (AMIEN.org Thread - opens new window)

I = Excellent,
II = Good,
III = Poor,
= Fugitive/Very Poor

Oil Absorption: is in ml/100mg
The oil absorption figure has been arrived at from the pigment manufacturer's literature or artist reference sources (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works).

When the specific numbers are unavailable:   H = High,   M = Medium,   L = Low

The hazardous properties is a general designation of a possible hazard. It is assumed intelligent people will use at least ordinary care when handling all paints or pigments. The designation has been arrived at from, in most cases, the manufacturer's literature, MSDS sheets at the Oxford University Chemical Laboratory., or the City of Tucson's Environmental Management Division's searchable database of Health & Safety in the Arts. All paints and especially dry pigments can be hazardous if carelessly handled, but if handled properly with common sense all but the most dangerous can be used safely.

A = Low hazard, but do not handle carelessly;
B = Possible Hazard if improperly or carelessly handled;
C = Hazardous, use appropriate precautions for handling mildly toxic substances; 
D = D = Extremely Toxic, only attempt working with this pigment (especially the dry form) in laboratory like conditions and with proper safety equipment (see "Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposal of chemicals" at google books opens new window; or PDF format here);

Side Notes:
These are typically interesting things I have read, or information collected on a pigment that may be worth further study. They are NOT statements of absolute fact. Many pigment qualities are rumors, old wife's tales and misconceptions repeated over and over until they accepted as fact without any scientific proof. References (Ref) may be provided.

(hue) = When the word "hue" in in parenthesis (hue), it refers to a hue color not designated on the label, when the word "hue" is not in parenthesis is part of the pigment name as per ASTM guidelines.

(Ref) = A link to a reference source. This may be the source of the information I have given. or a link to more detailed information.

? = a question mark next to a name, note, or data code indicates that it may or may not be correct information due to conflicting information, questionable reference, possible typo or other discrepancies in the manufacturer or other reference documentation. Further study is needed to clarify.

Effects of long term light exposure are given when known, this may allow an artist to anticipate color changes and possibly use them as an advantage. These effects are all relative to the pigments inherent light fastness and may take decades or even centuries in museum conditions to be visible.
Fades = Becomes more Transparent;  Lightens = Loses chroma but maintains relative transparency or opaque character;  Whitens = Becomes lighter and more opaque;  Darkens = Becomes darker but retains hue;  Dulls = Loses chroma towards neutral;  Blackens = Turns very dark or black losing chroma;  Hue shift = Changes hue towards a different color

Paint or Pigment Manufacturer Code & Art Medium:*****    Key Top ^, Page Top^
Paint/Pigment Manufacturer Code:
(links below are to the official manufacturer web site and will open in a new window)
DG = Daniel Green
EP = Earth Pigments
GB = Gamblin
GEN = Common Generic term
GO = Golden
GR = Grumbacher
GU = Guerra Paint & Pigment
HO = Holbien
JO = Jo Sonja
KA = Kama Pigments
KP = Kremer Pigmente  (USA site)
Art medium or binder code:   Key Top ^, Page Top^

Clicking on the paint or pigment manufacturer code next to the pigment name will take you off site where more information can be found. The link will most often take you to an art supplier where you can find more specific art medium or paint binder info, purchasing source, pigment properties, pigment history, MSDS sheets, and whether it is the artist premium or student economy grade.

d in italics next to the pigment manufacturer or art supplier code indicates a discontinued pigment or paint.
All art medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the "student" or economy grade, not the "artist's" grade paint.

a = Acrylic Paint;  
ad = Aqueous pigment dispersions>;
af = Fluid Acylics or Airbrush Colors;
ag = Acrylic Gouache or Matte Acrylic Paints;
av = Acrylic Vinyl Paints;
k = Alkyd paints;
c = Casein or milk paint;
e = Encaustic paints;
g = Gouache;
i = Ink (printing ink or pigmented drawing inks);
o = Oil Paint;
os = Oil sticks, Oil Bars, Oil Base Pigment Sticks;
p = Dry Pigment;
t = Tempera or Egg Tempera;
w = Watercolor Paint;
ws = Watercolor sticks, Watercolor Base Pigment Sticks or Bars;
wo = Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.

Other than gouache, only single pigment paints and pigments are included. Gouache is designated distinct from watercolors because it is often mixed with white or additives to make it matte and/or opaque and that is not usually indicated on the paint manufactures literature. Clicking on the art medium code will give you more specific paint binder information. Clicking on the art supplier's artistic medium code will also take you to more information on the paint pigment that may include: whether it is the "artists" premium or "student" grade, MSDS sheets, pigment history and additional artist paints or pigments hazard & environmental information.
Other art material or medium forms such as pastel, oil pastels, oil bars, dyes and ceramic glazes will not be designated with a artists medium or binder code, but may still be listed under the pigment name with a company code.

+++++In all cases clicking on the art medium/binder code will take you off site to where you can find more information and-or a purchasing source. If you find this site helpful you can help support this site by purchasing through these links. Thanks, and I hope I can continue to make this information available and current. The above links in this key are to the actual manufactures official sites.

©2010 by David Myers, All Rights Reserved. Please email me with corrections, additions or comments.

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Artist Reference Resources:

Natural Pigments, Pigments, Education, The Best source of Natural and Historical Pigments
Dick Blick Artist Supply:
Full Range of art supplies at discount prices
Handprint.com, Guide to Watercolor Pigments, Bruce MacEvoy 2008




The Color of Art Pigment Database Reference of artist paint and dry pigments, pigment powders, and pigment dispersions it is a complete resource on color for acylic, watercolor, oil color, oil paint, alkyds, inks, eggtempera, caseins and gouache for assisting in the artistic creation of artists. The Color of Art Pigment Database Reference includes Artist's paint Color Index Names and Color Index Chemical Constitution Numbers along with MSDS sheets, light fastness ratings, oil absorption, and other reference information on artist pigments used for painting, crafts, graphic design, decorating, illustration or any medium that uses color in thier art work or craft.

This page of the Color of Art Pigment Database is for CI Pigment White, Color Index code PW. is a complete artist's reference, with color Index names and specifications for artist's pigments and paint. The Art is Creation, Color of Art Pigment Database Reference has resources and info for artist paint, student paints, Oilcolor, Oil Paints, Watercolors, Aqueous Pigment Dispersions, Fluid Acylics, Airbrush Paint, Acrylic Gouache, Matte Acrylic Paints, Acrylic Vinyl, Acylics, Alkyd Oils, Casein or Milk Paint, Encaustic, Gouache, Printing Inks or Pigmented Drawing inks, Oil sticks, Oil Bars, Oil Base Pigment Sticks, Dry Pigments and Powders, Tempera or Egg Tempera, Watercolor Sticks, Watercolor Base Pigment Sticks or Bars, and Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.

© 2010 by David Myers